The original name of the Bargarh District was “Baghar Kota” as known from an inscription of the 11th Century A.D. It was called “Bargarh” probably from the time of Balaram Dev, the Chauhan Raja of Sambalpur, who made it his headquarters and constructed a big fort for its protection.The old fort walls can be traced near the ‘Jira’ river towards the plane of Ambapali. Narayan Singh, the last Chauhan Raja granted this place in “Maufi” (free hold) to 2 Brahmin brothers Krushna Dash and Narayan Dash, sons of Baluki Dash who was killed in action by the Gond. Another part of the District known as “Borasambar” was formerly the headquarters of the Borasambar Zamindari extending over 2178 Sq.Kms. Later, the headquarters of the Zamindari shifted to Padampur, one of the present sub-divisional headquarter.
Bargarh's climate is classified as tropical. In winter, there is much less rainfall in Bargarh than in summer. This location is classified as Aw by Köppen and Geiger. The average temperature in Bargarh is 27.2 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 1435 mm. Precipitation is the lowest in December, with an average of 4 mm. With an average of 410 mm, the most precipitation falls in July. At an average temperature of 35.2 °C, May is the hottest month of the year. December has the lowest average temperature of the year. It is 20.4 °C.