Sundargarh District was constituted on the 1st January, 1948, out of the two ex–States of Gangpur and Bonai, which merged with Odisha on that day. True to its name, this beautiful District of Sundargarh with about 43 percent of its total area under forest cover and numerous colourful tribes dotting its landscape and with abundant mining potential is bounded by Ranchi District of Jharkhand on the North, Raigarh District of Chhatisgarh on the west and North West, Jharsuguda, Sambalpur and Angul Districts of Odisha on the South and South East and Singhbhum District of Jharkhand and Keonjhar District of Odisha on the east.Sundargarh District is the second largest District of the state.
The climate of this District is characterized by extremely hot summers and cool winters. Climate is hot & moist sub humid. Normal rainfall of the District is approximately 1230 mm, but there is a deviation in receipt of rainfall pattern which is influencing crop production.