Subarnapur district has figured on the political and cultural map of Odisha since the prehistoric period. It is bounded on the north by Sambalpur district, on the south and the South–East by Boudh District, on the East by Rairakhol subdivision of Sambalpur District and on the West by Balangir district. The discovery of a large number of stone tools and weapons from different places in and around Subarnapur and the Rock Art of Puja Dunguri near Rampur Tahasil of Subarnapur district support this presumption. The archaeological excavation of Asurgarh close to Sonepur town and of Khambeswaripali on the bank of Mahanadi in Birmaharajpur subdivision of Subarnapur district and the discovery of punch-marked coins from Subarnapur makes us believe of a human settlement on this region dating from 3rd century B.C. to 1st century AD. But the exact nature and the extent of Subarnapur kingdom in those periods is not known.
The chronological history of subarnapur starts from 8th century AD. Suvarnapur or modern Subarnapur occupies a place of prime importance at different period under the rule of different royal families like the Bhanjas, the Somovamsis, the Telgu–chodas, the kalachuais, the Gangas and the chouhans who ruled over this territory.
The climate here is tropical. In winter, there is much less rainfall than in summer. The climate here is classified as Aw by the Köppen-Geiger system. The average temperature in Sonepur is 27.2 °C. The rainfall here averages 1423 mm. The driest month is December, with 4 mm of rain. Most precipitation falls in July, with an average of 409 mm. May is the warmest month of the year. The temperature in May averages 34.8 °C. In December, the average temperature is 20.7 °C. It is the lowest average temperature of the whole year.